Downscaling RCP8.5 daily temperatures and precipitation in Ontario using localized ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) and bias correction
A novel method for daily temperature and precipitation downscaling is proposed in this study which combines the Ensemble Optimal Interpolation (EnOI) and bias correction techniques. For downscaling temperature, the day to day seasonal cycle of high resolution temperature of the NCEP climate forecast system reanalysis (CFSR) is used as background state. An enlarged ensemble of daily temperature anomaly relative to this seasonal cycle and information from global climate models (GCMs) are used to construct a gain matrix for each calendar day. Consequently, the relationship between large and local-scale processes represented by the gain matrix will change accordingly. The gain matrix contains information of realistic spatial correlation of temperature between different CFSR grid points, between CFSR grid points and GCM grid points, and between different GCM grid points. Therefore, this downscaling method keeps spatial consistency and reflects the interaction between local geographic and atmospheric conditions. Maximum and minimum temperatures are downscaled using the same method. For precipitation, because of the non-Gaussianity issue, a logarithmic transformation is used to daily total precipitation prior to conducting downscaling. Cross validation and independent data validation are used to evaluate this algorithm. Finally, data from a 29-member ensemble of phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) GCMs are downscaled to CFSR grid points in Ontario for the period from 1981 to 2100. The results show that this method is capable of generating high resolution details without changing large scale characteristics. It results in much lower absolute errors in local scale details at most grid points than simple spatial downscaling methods. Biases in the downscaled data inherited from GCMs are corrected with a linear method for temperatures and distribution mapping for precipitation. The downscaled ensemble projects significant warming with amplitudes of 3.9 and 6.5 °C for 2050s and 2080s relative to 1990s in Ontario, respectively; Cooling degree days and hot days will significantly increase over southern Ontario and heating degree days and cold days will significantly decrease in northern Ontario. Annual total precipitation will increase over Ontario and heavy precipitation events will increase as well. These results are consistent with conclusions in many other studies in the literature.
Downscaled daily data on grids and at stations are available
A large ensemble of downscaled daily data at 150 cities within Ontario are available. And 96 members of 0.125 deg X 0.125 deg (~10km) daily data (tas, tasmin, tasmax and precipitation) within Ontario for 1981-2099 are available(https://cmip5.lamps.yorku.ca:5001/fsdownload/H8pWZgk18/CMIP5)
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